The ovaries are a very important part of a female body. They are in a pair in the female reproductive system and are located one on each side of the uterus. Each ovary is about the size and shape of an almond. The ovaries produce eggs and are also the main source of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. They influence the development of a woman's breasts, body shape, and body hair. They also regulate the menstrual cycle and pregnancy.
A cyst is a fluid-filled sac and can be located anywhere in the body. Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs or pockets within or on the surface of an ovary. Different types of cysts can form in the ovary.
Many cysts are completely normal. These are called functional cysts and these are very commonly found. They occur during egg formation. Functional cysts normally shrink over time, usually in a few months. If you have a functional cyst, you may need a check-up once again in 1 to 2 months to make sure that the cyst has become smaller or has it completely resolved. For this check-up, you should visit Gynecologist Obstetricians in South Delhi. These cysts are rarely associated with cancer. But if you are menopausal and are not having periods, you will not have functional cysts.
The other types of cysts are chocolate cyst, Simple cyst, or dermoid cyst.
Many women have ovarian cysts without having any symptoms. In some the cyst will cause these problems:
- Pressure, fullness, or pain in the abdomen
- Pain during sexual intercourse
- Painful menstrual periods and abnormal bleeding
- Nausea or vomiting
To identify the type of cyst, the following tests are needed:
1. Pelvic ultrasound
2. CA 125 blood test- It is a tumor marker and is often elevated in ovarian cancer.
The ovarian cysts can be treated in the following ways-
1. Wait and watch-
The patient waits and gets re-examined in one to three months to see if the cyst has changed in size. This is a common treatment option for women who are in their childbearing years, have no symptoms, and have a simple cyst less than 5 cm size.
If the cyst does not go away after few menstrual cycles, has become larger, or looks unusual on the ultrasound, causes pain, or the woman is postmenopausal, then there is a need to remove it. There are two surgical methods-
Laparoscopy-if the cyst is small and looks non-cancerous on the ultrasound, CA-125 is normal then laparoscopy can be done. This procedure is done under general anesthesia. Very small incisions of 0.5 to 1.0 cm are needed in this surgery.
Open Surgery-if the cyst is solid and looks suspicious, then open surgery is needed. The incision in open surgery is quite big.
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