PCOD is a problem related to hormones. Oestrogen and progesterone are the main female hormones and some amount of androgen which is a male hormone is also present in females. Imbalance in these hormones leads to PCOD. It is not completely understood why or how the changes in the hormone levels occur. These changes lead to problems in the ovulation process of the ovaries resulting in the development of many immature eggs. Mature eggs are not formed. In normal ovulation, one or more eggs get matured and are released during one menstrual cycle. In PCOD as eggs are not released from the ovaries and they form many small cysts in the ovary so the name Poly-Cystic Ovarian Syndrome. Women with this disorder often have a mother or sister who has symptoms similar to those of polycystic ovary syndrome therefore it is thought to have a genetic etiology. Most of the time, PCOS is diagnosed in women in their 20s or 30s. However, it may also affect teenage girls. PCOD produces symptoms in approximately 5% to 10% of women of reproductive age (12–45 years old). It is thought to be one of the leading causes of infertility and the most frequent endocrine problem in women of reproductive age.
Symptoms tend to be mild at first. You may have only a few symptoms or a lot of them. Rarely on a routine ultrasound is it an accidental finding while the female is not having any symptoms of PCOD. The most common symptoms are:
- Delayed cycles, scanty menstrual bleeding, or irregular spotting during the menstrual cycle.
- Excessive weight gain.
- Extra facial hair. Often women get thicker and darker facial hair.
- Hair fall (scalp)
- Difficulty in conceiving (infertility).
History of menstrual irregularities with weight gain or increased facial hair gives the hint of it being due to PCOD. An Ultrasound of the ovaries leads to a clear diagnosis as we can see the typically multicystic or polycystic ovaries. Blood tests to see hormonal levels can reconfirm the diagnosis. Blood tests are also done for glucose metabolism as this is found to be deranged in some cases of PCOD.
Regular exercise, a balanced diet is important for the treatment. One should try to lose weight with exercise and diet management preferably under the guidance of a dietician
Hormonal pills are usually needed which should only be taken under proper medical guidance.
A diabetes medicine called metformin may also be needed.
Fertility medicines will be needed if you are trying to get pregnant.
If the above treatment does not correct the problem then surgical treatment is needed through Laparoscopic surgery. Well, we can say that it is a treatable problem. You need to be aware of it so that treatment is started sooner. So consult the best Gynecologist in Delhi for the treatment.